Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtII)

RtII is an early intervening strategy and carries dual meaning in Pennsylvania. It is a comprehensive, multi-tiered, standards aligned strategy to enable early identification and intervention for students at academic or behavioral risk. As such, it forms the assessment and instructional framework to organize and implement PA's Standards-aligned System (SAS) to improve student achievement and its school improvement process, Getting Results!. At a later date, RtII may be considered as one alternative to the aptitude-achievement discrepancy model for the identification of students with learning disabilities after the establishment of specific progress measures. RtII allows educators to identify and address academic and behavioral difficulties prior to student failure. Monitoring student response to a series of increasingly intense interventions assists in preventing failure and provides data that may guide eligibility decisions for learning disabilities. The overarching goal of RtII is to improve student achievement using research based interventions matched to the instructional need and level of the student.

RtII provides all students with standards-aligned concepts and competencies, data-driven instruction and the additional support needed to achieve strong academic results.

II. Core Characteristics of RtII
  • Standards-aligned instruction: All students receive high quality, research-based instruction in the general education standards-aligned system.
  • Universal screening: All students are screened to determine academic and behavior status against grade-level benchmarks.
  • Shared ownership: All staff (general education teachers, special education teachers, Title I, ESL) assume an active role in students' assessment and instruction in the standards-aligned system.
  • Data-Based Decision Making: A public, objective, and normative framework is used to analyze student performance data and to guide school decisions on instructional changes, choices of interventions, and appropriate rates of progress.
    • Progress Monitoring: Continuous progress monitoring of student performance and use of progress monitoring data to determine intervention effectiveness and drive instructional adjustments, and to identify/measure student progress toward instructional and grade-level goals.
    • Benchmark and Outcome Assessment: Student progress is assessed periodically throughout the year, and at the end of the year against grade level benchmarks and standards.
  • Tiered Intervention and Service Delivery System: Some students receive increasing intense levels of targeted scientifically, research-based interventions dependent upon student need. Instruction is differentiated to meet learner needs and consists of:
    • Research-based Interventions: Implementation of research-validated interventions with proven effectiveness based on assessed skill area and level of need.
    • Flexible grouping: Students move among flexible instructional groups based on need and skill mastery.
    • Fidelity of Implementation: Teachers deliver curriculum and program content and use instructional strategies in the same way that they were designed to be used and delivered.
  • Parental Engagement: Parents receive information regarding:
    • their child's needs,
    • a description of the specific intervention and who is delivering instruction,
    • clearly stated intervention goals and academic progress expected for their child,
    • the amount of time spent in each tier to determine whether the intervention is working
    • regular progress or lack of progress reports, and
    • the right to request a special education evaluation at any time.


PA Multi-tiered Model:
Tier 1: Foundation/Standards-Aligned Instruction for All Students

  • Definition: Standards-aligned instruction and schoolwide foundational interventions are provided to all students in the general education core curriculum. Tier I also is used to designate instructional interventions for students who are making expected grade level progress (benchmark students) in the standards-aligned system and who demonstrate social competence.
  • Foundation/Benchmark Interventions
    • High quality, effective instruction designed to engage and challenge students
    • Clear and high expectations for student learning and behavior
    • Effective support to enhance student engagement in the learning process and to promote school completion
    • 4Sight benchmark assessments or other periodic progress monitoring benchmark assessments

Tier 2: Targeted Interventions for Some Students
  • Definition: Academic and behavioral strategies, methodologies, and practices designed for some students who are not making expected progress in the standards-aligned system and who are at risk for academic and behavioral failure. Students require additional academic and behavioral support to successfully engage in the learning process and succeed in the standards-aligned system.
  • Targeted Interventions
    • Standards-aligned instruction with supplemental, small group instruction which may include specialized materials.
    • Use of standard protocol interventions - A standard protocol intervention is scientifically research-based and has a high probability of producing change for large numbers of students. It is usually designed to be used in a standard manner across students and is typically delivered in small groups.
    • Scientifically research-based interventions
      • Academic content areas (reading, mathematics)
      • Behavior
      • Progress monitoring occurs at least twice a month.

    • Specialists assist with strategic instruction in the general education classroom and small group instruction as needed

Tier 3: Intensive Interventions for a Few Students
  • Definition: Academic and behavioral strategies, methodologies and practices designed for a few students who are significantly below established grade-level benchmarks in the standards-aligned system or who demonstrate significant difficulties with behavioral and social competence.
  • Intensive Interventions
    • Use of standard protocols interventions
    • May use supplemental instructional materials for specific skill development
    • Small intensive, flexible groups
    • Additional tutoring provided by specialists as part of the school day
    • Progress monitoring occurs at least weekly.
    • Instructional changes based on data based decision making
Response to Intervention: Legal AuthorityLegal Authority: PL 108-446 IDEIA (December 3, 2004) IN GENERAL-when determining whether a child has a specific learning disability...a local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathmatical calculation, or mathmatical reasoning...

..ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY-In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation procedures (described in the above paragraph).

The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD, 2006) defines RtI as:

"an assessment and intervention process for systematically monitoring progress and making decisions about the need for instructional modifications or increasingly intensified services using progress monitoring data."


Additional RTI videos:

Training Title:
Response to Intervention (RtI): An Overview for Parents
Training Date:
12/2/2008
Play Streaming Media (html )
Description:
This for Parents by Parents training recorded webinar will focus on Parental Engagement, one of the core elements in Pennsylvania's RtI Model. It will include an overview of Pennsylvania's Response to Intervention (RtI) framework and the role of parents in that process.
Interest Area(s):
Response to Intervention (RtI)



Training Title:
Response to Intervention (RtI): What Parents Need to Know and Be Able to Do! Part 1
Training Date:
7/23/2008
Play Streaming Media (Video Clip wmv )
Running Time:
180
Description:
This for Parents by Parents training will focus on Parental Engagement, one of the core elements in Pennsylvania's RtI Model. It will include an overview of Pennsylvania's Response to Intervention (RtI) framework and the role of parents in that process. Parents will learn how students are provided early intervening services to prevent academic failure.
Support Material Download(s):
Response to Intervention (RtI): What Parents Need to Know and be Able to Do! Part 1
Interest Area(s):
Response to Intervention (RtI)